Probate

Mom or Dad Signed a Transfer on Death Deed, How Does This Work?

Start your claim form here.

First Question:  If all the persons signing the Transfer on Deed are now deceased keep reading.  If not Click Here

You have only 9 months after the last signor died to file an acceptance affidavit.  If you don’t complete the affidavit and file it within that time, then the normal probate rules apply.  Luckily, the form is fairly easy to complete and you will need just three things:

Do I pay taxes to make the transfer?

  Oklahoma does not have an Estate or Inheritance Tax. Federal Estate taxes for someone who died in 2018 don’t apply unless the total estate was more than $11 Million.  This does not trigger income tax if you are inheriting from a family member.  There are not filing taxes just a small filing fee.  Real estate does have an annual property tax.

What if there is a lien or mortgage, will I become liable for that?

  An existing lien or mortgage will continue on the property but you will not become personally responsible for it.  If you sell the property the lien holder will get paid from the proceeds.  You can also pay off the lien.

 

Things you need to claim property under a Transfer on Death Deed:

  1. A copy of the Transfer on Death Deed.  You do not have to have the original because you only need it to obtain the following information:

    1. The date it was signed;

    2. The date it was filed with the county clerk;

    3. The Book and Page number that the county clerk assigned to it; and

    4. The legal description of the property.

  2.  certified copy of the Death Certificate.  State of Oklahoma Death Certificate request.

  3. An Affidavit of Grantee Beneficiary Obtain form Here   Price $149

  4. A check to County Clerk for Filing.  (usually $17-$21)

 

After the Affidavit of Grantee Beneficiary is completed it must be filed in the county where the property is located with a certified copy of the death certificate.

 

Adair County County Clerk Cathy Harrison (918) 696-7198 — Search
Alfalfa County County Clerk Laneta Unruh (580) 596-3158 — Search
Atoka County County Clerk Christie Henry (580) 889-5157 — Search
Beaver County County Clerk Lisa Bennett (580) 625-3141 — Search
Beckham County County Clerk Leasa Hartman (580) 928-3383 — Search
Blaine County County Clerk Jennifer Haigler (580) 623-5890 — Search
Bryan County County Clerk Tammy Reynolds (580) 924-2202 — Search
Caddo County — (405) 247 – 6609
Canadian County– Search
Carter County County Clerk Kayelyn Clubb (580)223-8162 — Search
Cherokee County County Clerk Cheryl Trammel (918) 456-3171 — Search
Choctaw County County Clerk Emily VanWorth (580) 326-3778 — Search
Cimarron County County Clerk Gina Richardson (580) 544-2251 — Search
Cleveland County Clerk — Search
Coal County County Clerk Eugina Loudermilk (580) 927-4015 — Search
Coal County County Clerk Eugina Loudermilk (580) 927-4015 — Search
Comanche County County Clerk Carrie Tubbs (580) 355-5214 — Search
Craig County County Clerk Tammy Malone (918) 256-2507 — Search
Creek County– Search
Custer County County Clerk Melissa Parker (580) 323-1221 — Search
Delaware County County Clerk Barbara Barnes (918) 253-4520 — Search
Dewey County County Clerk Misty Moore (580) 328-5361 — Search
Ellis County County Clerk Lynn Smith (580) 885-7301 — Search
Delaware County County Clerk Barbara Barnes (918) 253-4520 — Search
Dewey County County Clerk Misty Moore (580) 328-5361 — Search
Ellis County County Clerk Lynn Smith (580) 885-7301 — Search
Garfield County–(580) 237-0225 or 237-0226
Garvin County County Clerk Lori Fulks (405) 238-2772 — Search
Garvin County County Clerk Lori Fulks (405) 238-2772 — Search
Grady County  (405) 224-7388 Search  
Grant County County Clerk Cindy Pratt (580) 395-2274 — Search
Greer County County Clerk Leanne Coffman (580) 782-3664 — Search
Harmon County County Clerk Kara Gollihare (580) 688-3658 — Search
Harper County County Clerk Karen Hickman (580) 735-2012 — Search
Haskell County County Clerk Karen McClary (918) 967-2884 — Search
Hughes County County Clerk Carolyn Preble (405) 379-5487 — Search
Jackson County County Clerk Robin Booker (580) 482-4070 — Search
Jefferson County County Clerk Traci Smith (580) 228-2029 — Search
Johnston County County Clerk Kathy Ross (580) 371-3184 — Search
Kay County County Clerk Tammy Reese (580) 362-2537 — Search
Kingfisher County County Clerk Jeannie Boevers (405) 375-3887 — Search
Kiowa County County Clerk Nikki Dodd (580) 726-5286 — Search
Latimer County County Clerk Erin Adams (918) 465-4002 — Search
LeFlore County County Clerk Kelli Ford (918) 647-5738 — Search
Lincoln County County Clerk Alicia Wagnon (405) 258-1264 — Search
Logan County County Clerk Troy Cole (405) 282-0266 — Search
Love County County Clerk Shelly Russell (580) 276-3059 — Search
Major County County Clerk Kathy McClure (580) 227-4732 — Search
Marshall County County Clerk Ann Hartin (580) 795-3220 — Search
Mayes County County Clerk Brittany True-Howard (918) 825-2426 — Search
McClain County County Clerk Pam Beller (405) 527-3360 — Search
McCurtain County County Clerk Karen Bryan (580) 286-2370 — Search
McIntosh County County Clerk Ronda Prince (918) 689-2741 — Search
Murray County County Clerk Jill Hall (580) 622-3920 — Search
Muskogee County County Clerk Dianna Cope (918) 682-7781 — Search
Noble County County Clerk Sandra Richardson (580) 336-2141 — Search
Nowata County County Clerk Chris Freeman (918) 273-2480 — Search
Okfuskee County County Clerk Dianne Flanders (918) 623-1724 — Search
Oklahoma County —Search
Okmulgee County County Clerk Becky Thomas (918) 756-0788 — Search
Osage County County Clerk Shelia Bellamy (918) 287-3136 — Search
Ottawa County County Clerk Robyn Mitchell (918) 542-3332 — Search
Pawnee County County Clerk Kristie Moles (918) 762-2732 — Search
Pawnee County County Clerk Kristie Moles (918) 762-2732 — Search
Payne County —Search
Pittsburg County County Clerk Hope Trammell (918) 423-6865 — Search
Pontotoc County County Clerk Tammy Brown (580) 332-1425 — Search
Pottawatomie County– Search
Pushmataha County County Clerk Jane Dunlap (580) 298-3626 — Search
Roger Mills County County Clerk Jimmy Beavin (580) 497-3395 — Search
Rogers County County Clerk Jeanne M. Heidlage (918) 923-4796 — Search
Seminole County County Clerk Tahasha Wilcots (405) 257-2501 — Search
Sequoyah County County Clerk Julie Haywood (918) 775-4516 — Search
Stephens County County Clerk Jenny Moore (580) 255-0977 — Search
Texas County County Clerk Wendy Johnson (580) 338-3233 — Search
Tillman County County Clerk Cacy Caldwell (580) 335-3421 — Search
Wagoner County —Search
Washington County County Clerk Marjorie Parrish (918) 337-2840 — Search
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Washita County County Clerk Kristen Dowell (580) 832-3548 — Search
Woods County–(580) 327-0942
Woodward County County Clerk Wendy Dunlap (580) 256-3625 — Search

 

 

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unlocking digital assets after death

Executors Fight to Get Access to E-mails

John Ajemain, Forty-Six  died in a bicycle accident.  He had no Will or Trust.  His brother and sister became the Personal Representatives (PRs) of his estate.  They sought access to John’s “digital assets” in particular Yahoo e-mail account to review for other assets such as bank accounts and liabilities.  Yahoo denied access and a court battle ensued.

How Yahoo Justified Refusal

Yahoo refused  relied upon the two points.  First they claimed that the Stored Communications Act “SCA”(18 USC Sec. 2701) prevented such disclosure.  Yahoo also claimed that the terms of service agreement governing use of the Yahoo account allowed them to withhold or even destroy the information.

Stored Communication Act

The Court examined the SCA and found that the act was established to prevent “overzealous” law enforcement from gaining access to private accounts.  However, the SCA provides an exception to the nondisclosure to “with the lawful consent of the originator”.  Yahoo’s position was that the PRs “cannot lawfully consent on behalf of the decedent, regardless of the estate’s property interest in the e-mail messages”.  In Yahoo’s view, only a living person had the authority to grant the consent.

Luckily, the court did not agree with Yahoo on this point.  After an exhaustive examination of statutory construction, the Court held that the SCA could not be used to prevent disclosure to the PRs.  It found that the PRs had the authority to provide “lawful consent” and that access to the records was necessary because Yahoo’s refusal “would significantly curtail the ability of the personal representatives to perform their duties”.  The court stated that nothing in the SCA “would suggest that lawful consent precludes consent by a personal representative on a decedent’s behalf.”

 

Terms of Service Agreement, Yahoo’s Delete Button

Even though the Court threw out the SCA defense, it still wasn’t sure what to do the “Terms of Service Agreement”.  According to Yahoo, that the Agreement trumps the PR’s property interest in the records.  The Agreement says:

You agree that Yahoo, in its sole discretion, may terminate your password, account…and remove and discard any Content…for any reason”.  The Court was not certain that this provision was enforceable or whether the essentials for a valid contract existed.  In short, there wasn’t sufficient evidence to show that there was a “meeting of the minds” with regard to Yahoo’s Agreement.  The Supreme Court sent the matter back to the Trial Court to take evidence on the matter.

What this Means to You

Unfortunately, the Court did provide a definitive answer to the question of whether the records will ultimately be handed over to the PRs.  This will play itself out in the courts below.  But there are things that you may consider.  What is frightening is how hard Yahoo is fighting to keep John’s records from his PR.  Yahoo is not alone in their position.  This area of the law is evolving.  While there are no definite answers the following are a few good ideas:

Digital Power of Attorney:  Your power of attorney should provide your agent with the authority to access your accounts.  This is increasingly necessary as many banks, financial products and other transactions occur digitally.  Failure to have access may be disruptive in the event of a disability.

Digital Powers in Will:  It is a good idea to include digital authorities in your Will which grants your Personal Representative the authority to access accounts.

Password Access:  The powers stated above are useless if one does not have access to the passwords.  Use a service like LastPass and DocuBank to keep track of your passwords.

Paper Copies:  The Yahoo case shows why it is important to maintain some paper copies of your important records.  Perhaps it is a good idea print out some statements and keep them with your other papers.

Want to read the Case?  Click Here

 

 

 

 

“What is the difference between a Will and a Trust?”  In many ways these Estate Planning Documents are very similar in what they accomplish the major difference is how the goals are accomplished.

Both Distribute an Inheritance At Death

Both a Will and a Trust distribute property upon the death of its maker.  The major difference is how we get to the point where the property is distributed.

Five Major Differences Between a Will and a Trust

  1. A Will requires a probate court and judicial oversight to work.  A Trust requires no oversight by a court or judge.
  2. A Will distributes property without restrictions which allows somebody as young as 18 with full access to an inheritance.  A Trust can control the timing of distributions.
  3. A Will does not protect an inheritance from claims of your kid’s creditors.  A Trust can be structured to protect an inheritance from a kid’s creditors and predators.
  4. A Will does nothing until the maker dies.  A Trust is a living document which allows the person in charge the ability to manage the assets and make distributions to beneficiaries.
  5. A Will becomes public record that anybody can snoop to see how much is in an estate and who ended up with your assets.  A Trust is a private document and few of its details require public disclosure.

Todd’s Story

Todd’s father passed away.  He was named Trustee of this father estate.  While he was cleaning out the house a passerby inquired whether the home would be for sale.  He was able to accept an offer and close that very same month.  If the property was left in a Will nothing could happen until there was approval of a probate court.  Instead of one month he would have had a delay of up to 6 months and incurred attorney, publication, appraiser and filing fees.  Todd was glad to avoid those troubles.

How a Will Works

A person makes a will by drafting and signing a written document.  It must clearly be a statement of the person’s “Testamentary Intent”.  In other words, it must state to whom property is to be given after their death.  There are also strict rules on how the document is drafted and witnessed.  If any of these are messed up then it is not a valid will.

A Will is a Lazy Document

After a Will is created it lays around and waits for its maker to die.  None of its provisions becomes effective until the person dies.  For instance, if the plan is to give land to a son, he does not own it yet.   There is a a further requirement that a Probate Court determines that the Will is valid.

Once a Will is approved by the Court then it must be administered according to Probate Procedure.  This includes:

  • Filing a copy of the Will with the Court (making available for the public to see online)
  • Notifying all heirs (relatives who could inherit)
  • Notify all legatees (persons given something in the will)
  • Publish notices in the Newspaper
  • Appointing an Executor (the person in charge of collecting assets, paying claims and distributing assets)
  • Posting a Bond (a fund used if the Executor misbehaves
  • Sending notices and receiving claims from creditors
  • Report all of the assets (publicly available)
  • Provide and accounting
  • File a report of distribution (the public what everybody receives under the will)
  • Pay fees for attorneys, court clerks, mailing, publication and bonds
  • Keep in mind that this is just a snapshot of what is involved in a simple case.

A probate procedure can take nine months to several years to complete.

How does a Trust Work?

In the simplest terms, a Trust is a vehicle that holds assets in the name of the Trustee.  Imagine a child’s Radio Flyer wagon.  When things are placed in it the wagon “owns” them.  The kid pulling the wagon gets to decide what gets put into it.  He also writes a Rule Book that describes when and how things are taken out of it.  He pulls the handle so he is in control.  Someday he will not be able to pull the handle because he dies or loses the ability to manage it.  The Rule Book states who picks up the handle and what is to happen with the things in the wagon.  Unlike the Will, the Trust works without the need for a Probate Court of Judicial Oversight.  In Todd’s story, he picked up the handle and managed the property quickly and efficiently.

 

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